Left side Stroke
The cerebrum is the largest part of the brain. It is made of a left and a right hemisphere. The left hemisphere is in charge of the functions on the right side of the body. In most people, it is also involved in abilities such as the ability to speak, or use language.
A left-side stroke happens when the blood supply to the left side of the brain is interrupted. Without oxygen and nutrients from blood, the brain tissue quickly dies.
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
There are 2 main types of stroke: ischemic and hemorrhagic. An ischemic stroke is the most common type of stroke.
An ischemic stroke is caused by a blockage of blood flow, which may be due to:
- A clot from another part of the body like the heart or neck. The clot breaks off and flows through the blood until it becomes trapped in a blood vessel supplying the brain.
- A clot that forms in an artery that supplies blood to the brain.
- A tear in an artery supplying blood to the brain—arterial dissection.
A hemorrhagic stroke is caused by a burst blood vessel. Blood spills out of the broken blood vessel and pools in the brain. This interrupts the flow of blood and causes a build up of pressure on the brain.
|Hemorrhagic vs. Ischemic Stroke|
|Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.|
Certain factors increase your risk of stroke but can not be changed, such as:
- Race—People of African American, Hispanic, or Asian/Pacific Islander descent are at increased risk.
- Age: Older than 55 years of age.
- Family history of stroke.
Other factors that may increase your risk can be changed, such as:
- Drug abuse from cocaine , amphetamines, or heroin use
- Physical inactivity
Certain medical condition that can increase your risk of stroke. Management or prevention of these conditions can significantly decrease your risk. Medical conditions include:
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol levels —specifically high-LDL cholesterol
- Low bone mineral density, especially in women
- Obesity and metabolic syndrome
- Sleep apnea
- High blood homocysteine level
- Type 2 diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance
- Atrial fibrillation
- Blood disorders such as sickle cell disease and polycythemia
- Vascular dementia
- Disease of heart valves, such as mitral stenosis
- Prior stroke or cardiovascular disease, such as heart attack
- Peripheral artery disease
- Transient ischemic attack (TIA)—a warning stroke with stroke-like symptoms that go away shortly after they appear
Conditions that increase your risk of blood clots such as:
- Certain autoimmune diseases
- Migraine with aura
- Having a blood vessel abnormality
- Psychological disorders, such as depression or anxiety
Risk factors specific to women include:
- Previous pre-eclampsia
- Use of birth control pills , especially if you are over 35 years old and smoke
- Long-term use of hormone replacement therapy
- Pregnancy—due to increased risk of blood clots
Symptoms occur suddenly. Exact symptoms will depend on the part of the brain affected. Rapid treatment is important to decrease the amount of brain damage. Brain tissue without blood flow dies quickly.
Call for emergency medical help right away if you notice any of the following:
- Sudden weakness or numbness of face, arm, or leg, especially on the right side of the body
- Sudden confusion
- Sudden trouble speaking or understanding—aphasia
- Sudden trouble seeing the right side of the world from both eyes—homonymous hemianopsia
- Sudden lightheadedness, trouble walking, loss of balance, or coordination
- Sudden severe headache with no known cause
Longer-lasting effects of the stroke may include problems with:
- Left-sided weakness and/or sensory problems
- Speaking and swallowing
- Vision, like the inability for the brain to take in information from the left visual field
- Perception and spatial relations
- Attention span, comprehension, problem solving, judgment
- Interactions with other people
- Activities of daily living, such as going to the bathroom
- Mental health, such as depression , frustration, impulsivity
A physical exam will be done to look for muscle weakness, visual and speech problems, and movement difficulty. If possible, you will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. Your doctor may use a or of the brain to confirm a stroke or rule out other conditions.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
- CT scan
- MRI scan
- Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA)
- CT angiogram (CTA)
- Doppler ultrasound
Blood tests can also help determine if there is a bleeding problem.
Immediate treatment is needed to:
- Dissolve or remove a clot causing an ischemic stroke
- Remove clots from blood vessels using special devices
- Stop the bleeding during a hemorrhagic stroke
Oxygen therapy may be needed.
For an ischemic stroke, medication may be given to:
- Dissolve clots and prevent new ones from forming
- Thin the blood
- Control blood pressure
- Treat an irregular heart rate
- Treat high cholesterol
For a hemorrhagic stroke, the doctor may give medication to:
- Work against any blood-thinning drugs you may regularly take
- Prevent seizures
- Reduce how your brain reacts to bleeding
- Control blood pressure
For an ischemic stroke, procedures may be done to:
- Reroute blood supply around a blocked artery
- Remove the clot or deliver clot-dissolving medication
- Remove fatty deposits from arteries in the neck—carotid endarterectomy
- Widen the carotid artery and add a mesh tube to keep it open—atherectomy of noncoronary vessel
For a hemorrhagic stroke, the doctor may:
- Remove a piece of the skull to relieve pressure on the brain—craniotomy
- Place a clip or a tiny coil in an aneurysm to stop it from bleeding
A rehabilitation program focuses on:
- Physical therapy—to regain as much movement as possible
- Occupational therapy—to assist in everyday tasks and self-care
- Speech therapy—to improve swallowing and speech challenges
- Psychological therapy—to help adjust to life after the stroke
Many of the risk factors for stroke can be changed. Lifestyle changes that can help reduce your chance of getting a stroke include:
- Exercise regularly.
- Eat more fruits, vegetables , and whole grains . Limit dietary salt and fat .
- If you smoke , talk to your doctor about ways to quit.
- Increase your consumption of fish.
- Drink alcohol only in moderation. This means 1-2 drinks per day.
- Maintain a healthy weight.
- Check your blood pressure frequently . Follow your doctor's recommendations for keeping it in a safe range.
- Take aspirin if your doctor says it is safe.
- Keep chronic medical conditions under control. This includes high cholesterol and diabetes.
- Talk to your doctor about the use of statins. These types of drugs may help prevent certain kinds of strokes in some people.
- Seek medical care if you have symptoms of a stroke, even if symptoms stop.
- If you use drugs, talk to your doctor about rehabilitation programs.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
Copyright © EBSCO Information Services
All rights reserved.
a (Stroke, Left-side; Left Hemisphere Stroke; Stroke, Left Hemisphere)
American Heart Association http://www.heart.org
National Stroke Association http://www.stroke.org
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation http://www.heartandstroke.com
Cassella CR, Jagoda A. Ischemic stroke: advances in diagnosis and management. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2017;35(4):911-930.
Furie KL, Kasner SE, Adams RJ, et al. Guidelines for the prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2011;42(1):227-276.
Hemorrhagic stroke. National Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.stroke.org/understand-stroke/what-stroke/hemorrhagic-stroke. Accessed November 10, 2017.
Hemorrhagic strokes (bleeds). American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/HemorrhagicBleeds/Hemorrhagic-Strokes-Bleeds%5FUCM%5F310940%5FArticle.jsp#.Vk3h%5Fk2FPIU. Updated April 26, 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017.
Intracerebral hemorrhage. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115590/Intracerebral-hemorrhage . Updated September 28, 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017.
Ischemic strokes (clots). American Stroke Association website. Available at: http://www.strokeassociation.org/STROKEORG/AboutStroke/TypesofStroke/IschemicClots/Ischemic-Strokes-Clots%5FUCM%5F310939%5FArticle.jsp#.Vk3ipE2FPIU. Updated April 26, 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017.
Long-term management of stroke. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T900125/Long-term-management-of-stroke . Updated March 19, 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017.
Neuroimaging for acute stroke. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T474350/Neuroimaging-for-acute-stroke . Updated October 28, 2016. Accessed November 10, 2017.
Raychev R, Saver JL. Mechanical thrombectomy devices for treatment of stroke. Neurol Clin Practice. 2012;2(3):231-235.
Stroke (acute management). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T143427/Stroke-acute-management . Updated November 8, 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017.
Subarachnoid hemorrhage. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116453/Subarachnoid-hemorrhage . Updated July 31, 2017. Accessed November 10, 2017.
2/7/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T566761/Prevention-of-stroke : Bushnell C, McCollough LD, Awad IA, et al. Guideline for the prevention of stroke in women. Available at: http://stroke.ahajournals.org/content/early/2014/02/06/01.str.0000442009.06663.48. Accessed November 18, 2015.
6/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T580145/Stroke-rehabilitation : Myint PK, Cleark AB, Kwok CS, et al. Bone mineral density and incidence of stroke: European prospective investigation into cancer-Norfolk population-based study, systemic review, and meta-analysis. Stroke. 2014;45(2):373-382.
6/2/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T361037/Risk-factors-for-stroke-or-transient-ischemic-attack : Imfeld P, Bodmer M,Schuerch M, Jick SS, Meier CR. Risk of incident stroke in patients with Alzheimer disease or vascular dementia. Neurology. 2013;81(10):910-919.
8/11/2015 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T184935/Cardiovascular-disease-and-obstructive-sleep-apnea : Molnar MZ, Mucsi I, Novak M, et al. Association of incident obstructive sleep apnoea with outcomes in a large cohort of US veterans. Thorax. 2015;70(9):888-895.
1/18/2017 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113766/Coronary-artery-disease-possible-risk-factors : Emdin CA, Odutayo A, Wong CX, Tran J, Hsiao AJ, Hunn BH. Meta-analysis of anxiety as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Am J Cardiol. 2016;118(4):511-519.