Contact dermatitis is usually caused by either an irritant or an allergen. An irritant is a substance that irritates the skin. An allergen is a substance that causes an allergic reaction. People may be exposed to certain substances for years and never have a problem, and then suddenly develop contact dermatitis.
Some common causes of contact dermatitis include:
- Metals, such as nickel—common in jewelry allergy
- Cosmetics and toiletries
- Sunlight or artificial light
- Plants, such as poison ivy
The symptoms of contact dermatitis may vary from person to person. Scratching and rubbing can cause or worsen some symptoms. The rash is usually confined to the area where the contact with the substance occurred, but occasionally may spread. If contact with the substance occurred all over the body such as with a body lotion, the rash may be large.
- Crusting, oozing, and scaling
- Temporary thickening of the skin
The primary goal of treatment is to identify the substance causing the reaction and remove or avoid it. This could take several days or weeks of avoiding certain substances.
If you cannot identify the cause of your skin reaction, you may need to have a skin patch test. In a skin patch test, a small amount of the suspected substance is applied to the skin and covered with tape. Another patch without the substance on it is also attached to the skin. Both patches are removed after a period of time. If your skin is red and swollen under the suspected substance patch, and not under the other patch, you are probably allergic to that substance.
Treatment also focuses on caring for skin and relieving symptoms. Methods include:
Skin care guidelines may include:
- Washing the area with water and mild soap or cleanser and gently pat dry.
- Applying a barrier ointment such as petrolatum or petroleum jelly.
- Not poking at or cutting open blisters. They can become infected.
- Covering blisters with dry bandages.
Do not use any of these medications until after you have discussed them with your doctor.
- Over-the-counter or prescription creams and ointments containing cortisone
- Prescription medications containing corticosteroids, such as prednisone—for severe cases
- Prescription or over-the-counter antihistamines—may relieve itching in some cases, but not always useful for contact dermatitis
- Immunosuppressants—may be used in severe, resistant, and chronic cases
Phototherapy treatment may also be used in severe cases.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology http://www.aaaai.org
American Academy of Dermatology https://www.aad.org
Canadian Dermatology Association https://www.dermatology.ca
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
Bourke J, Coulson I, English J, British Association of Dermatologists. Guidelines for care of contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145(6):877-885.
Contact dermatitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114930/Contact-dermatitis . Updated May 10, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
11/6/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114930/Contact-dermatitis : Kütting B, Baumeister T, Weistenhöfer W, et al. Effectiveness of skin protection measures in prevention of occupational hand eczema: results of a prospective randomized controlled trial over a follow-up period of 1 year. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162(2):362-370.