Apraxia is caused by diseases or damage in the brain, such as:
- Brain tumor
- Brain injury
Brain disease, such as:
- Alzheimer disease
- Frontotemporal dementia—a syndrome associated with shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior portions of the brain
- Huntington disease
- Corticobasal ganglionic degeneration (CBD)
|Stroke can cause brain damage, which can lead to apraxia.|
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Apraxia may be due to stroke. Stroke is more common in older adults.
Factors that may increase your risk of stroke include:
- Prior stroke or cardiovascular disease
- Prior transient ischemic attack (TIA)
- High blood pressure
- High cholesterol
- Dialysis treatment, which takes over the job of the kidneys when they fail
Some common forms of apraxia and their symptoms include:
- Buccofacial or orofacial apraxia—inability to make facial movements, such as winking, whistling, or sticking out the tongue
- Apraxia of speech—difficulty performing the movements needed to make speech
- Constructional apraxia—inability to copy or draw simple figures or to make 2- or 3-dimensional forms
- Gait apraxia—difficulty walking, which can lead to an increased risk of falls
- Conceptual apraxia—inability to select or use tools or objects properly, to make complex movements at the same time, and to do tasks in order
- Limb-kinetic apraxia—inability to make fine, exact movements with hands or fingers such as handling coins
- Ideomotor apraxia—inability to copy movements or make signals, or to do a function on command
- Dressing apraxia—inability to dress oneself
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
A neurological exam may be done. You may be asked to:
- Copy posture, movement, and sequences
- Draw shapes
- Put together designs
- Pick up or rotate coins
- Select a tool, such as a hammer, and demonstrate how to use it
- Arrange movements in sequence
Images may be taken of your brain. This can be done with:
- MRI scan
- CT scan
Other tests may include:
- An exam of the muscles used in speech
- A speech assessment
- Evaluation of walking skills
If you are diagnosed with apraxia, you could also have aphasia . Aphasia is a language disorder.
It may be difficult to prevent this condition. It is strongly linked to stroke. Following steps to prevent stroke may help. Some of these steps include:
- Exercise regularly.
- Eat a healthy diet .
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about ways to quit .
- Limit how much alcohol you drink.
- Check your blood pressure often.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
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a (Buccofacial Apraxia; Conceptual Apraxia; Constructional Apraxia; Gait Apraxia; Ideomotor Apraxia; Limb-Kinetic Apraxia; Movement Disorder; Orofacial Apraxia; Stroke Complications)
American Speech-Language-Hearing Association http://www.asha.org
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke http://www.ninds.nih.gov
Health Canada https://www.canada.ca
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada http://www.heartandstroke.com
Apraxia of speech in adults. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ApraxiaAdults.htm. Accessed November 8, 2017.
Childhood apraxia of speech. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association website. Available at: http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/ChildhoodApraxia.htm. Accessed November 8, 2017.
Curioni C, André C, Veras R. Weight reduction for primary prevention of stroke in adults with overweight or obesity. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2006;(4):CD006062.
Lukas RV. Two automobile collisions in one day. J Emerg Med. 2012;43(4):e263-e264.
NINDS apraxia information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Apraxia-Information-Page. Accessed November 8, 2017.
NINDS frontotemporal dementia information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at: https://www.ninds.nih.gov/Disorders/All-Disorders/Frontotemporal-Dementia-Information-Page. Accessed November 8, 2017.