Factors that increase your chance of getting an ankle sprain include:
- Playing sports, especially with the wrong type of shoe
- Walking on uneven surfaces
- Weak ankles from a previous sprain
- Poor coordination
- Poor balance
- Poor muscle strength and tight ligaments
- Loose joints
- Certain footwear, such as high heels
An ankle sprain may not require a visit to the doctor. However, you should call your doctor if you have any of the following:
- Difficulty moving the ankle without significant pain
- Difficulty putting any weight on that foot
- Significant swelling or bruising
- Pain over a bony part of your foot or ankle
- Pain that interferes significantly with walking
- Pain not relieved by ice, pain relief medication, and elevation
- Numbness in the leg, foot, or ankle
- Pain that does not improve in 5-7 days
- Uncertainty about the severity of the injury
- Uncertainty about how to care for this injury
You will be asked about your symptoms and how your injury occurred. An examination of your ankle will be done to assess the injury.
Images are not always needed if your doctor is confident that you do not have a fracture. If images are needed, this can be done with x-rays. If additional details are needed, other images may be done, such as a CT scan or an MRI scan.
Ankle sprains are graded according to the damage to the ligaments. If there are more ligaments damaged, the injury is likely more severe.
- Some minor tearing of ligament tissue
- Ankle remains stable
- Partial tearing of ligament tissue
- Mild instability of the joint
- Usually involves damage to 2 ankle ligaments
- Complete tearing of 2 or 3 of the ligaments
- Significant instability of the joint
The ankle will need time to heal. Supportive care may include:
- Rest—Activities may need to be restricted. Normal activities will be gradually reintroduced as the injury heals.
- Ice—Ice therapy may help relieve swelling.
- Compression—Compression bandages can provide gentle pressure to help move fluids out of the area.
- Elevation—Keeping the ankle elevated can help fluids drain out or prevent fluids from building up.
- Protection—A brace or walking boot may be advised to prevent the ankle from moving as it heals. A short leg cast may be advised in severe cases, but this is rare.
Over-the-counter medications may be advised to reduce pain.
A physical therapist will assess the ankle. An exercise program will be created to help recovery and to strengthen the muscles around the ankle.
Surgery is rarely needed to repair an ankle sprain. However, it may be necessary to repair a third degree sprain in which all 3 ligaments are torn.
Many ankle sprains cannot be prevented. However, you can reduce your risk of spraining an ankle:
- Take a break from sports or exercise when you feel tired.
- Do exercises that improve your balance and strengthen leg and foot muscles.
- Learn the proper technique for exercise and sporting activities. This will decrease stress on all your muscles, ligaments, and tendons, including those around your ankle.
- If you have injured your ankle before, you are more likely to injure it again. You may reduce your risk of repeated sprains by wearing an ankle brace and by doing certain balance exercises.
- Wear appropriate footwear when playing sports to avoid injury.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
Edits to original content made by Denver Health.
Copyright © EBSCO Information Services
All rights reserved.
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons http://orthoinfo.aaos.org
Sports Med—American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine http://www.sportsmed.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Association http://www.coa-aco.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation http://www.canorth.org
Ankle sprain. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113633/Ankle-sprain . Updated February 2, 2018. Accessed February 26, 2018.
Kemler E, van de Port I, et al. A systematic review on the treatment of acute ankle sprain: brace versus other functional treatment types. Sports Med. 2011;41(3):185-197.
Kerkhoffs GM, Handoll HH, et al. Surgical versus conservative treatment for acute injuries of the lateral ligament complex of the ankle in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2007 Apr 18;(2):CD000380.
Sprained ankle. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at: http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=A00150. Updated February 2016. Accessed February 26, 2018.
Sprains and strains. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases website. Available at: http://www.niams.nih.gov/Health%5FInfo/Sprains%5FStrains/default.asp. Updated January 30, 2015. Accessed February 26, 2018.
10/26/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113633/Ankle-sprain : Massey T, Derry S, Moore R, McQuay H. Topical NSAIDs for acute pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2010;(6):CD007402.
11/19/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113633/Ankle-sprain : van Rijn RM, van Ochten J, Luijsterburg PA, van Middelkoop M, Koes BW, Bierma-Zeinstra SM. Effectiveness of additional supervised exercises compared with conventional treatment alone in patients with acute lateral ankle sprains: systematic review. BMJ. 2010;341:c5688.
9/10/2014 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113633/Ankle-sprain : Mosher TJ, Kransdorf MJ, et al. ACR Appropriateness Criteria acute trauma to the ankle online publication]. Reston (VA): American College of Radiology (ACR);2014. 10 p. Available at: http://www.guideline.gov/content.aspx?id=48284#Section420. Accessed March 3, 2015.